|Series||Discussion papers in economics / University of Reading Department of Economics -- no.27|
Printing press, a machine by which text and images are transferred to paper or other media by means of ink. Although movable type, as well as paper, first appeared in China, it was in Europe that printing first became mechanized. Read more about the printing press, its history, and the different types. Factory system, system of manufacturing that began in the 18th century and is based on the concentration of industry into specialized and often large establishments. The system arose during the Industrial Revolution, and it replaced the domestic system, in which workers made goods in . United Kingdom - United Kingdom - Economy: The United Kingdom has a fiercely independent, developed, and international trading economy that was at the forefront of the 19th-century Industrial Revolution. The country emerged from World War II as a military victor but with a debilitated manufacturing sector. Postwar recovery was relatively slow, and it took nearly 40 years, with . Mass production, application of the principles of specialization, division of labor, and standardization of parts to the manufacture of goods. Such manufacturing processes attain high rates of output at low unit cost. Learn more about the history, uses, and economic and environmental effects of mass production.
WORKING CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES (ISSUE) During the late nineteenth century the U.S. economy underwent a spectacular increase in industrial growth. Abundant resources, an expanding labor force, government policy, and skilled entrepreneurs facilitated this shift to the large-scale production of manufactured goods. For many U.S. citizens industrialization resulted in an unprecedented prosperity. The economic expansion between and was reflected in changes in American society. The changes were most evident in the northern states, where the combined effects of the transportation revolution, urbanization, and the rise of manufacturing were keenly felt. One aim of the movement was to put ‘man’ back in to the design and manufacturing process, Craft skills and good honest design would again be central to the manufacturing process. The Arts and Crafts movement influence other art movements such as the Bauhaus and Modernism, movements that believed in simplicity of design. A Roberts loom in a weaving shed in Textiles were the leading industry of the Industrial Revolution, and mechanized factories, powered by a central water wheel or steam engine, were the new workplace. The Industrial Revolution, now also known as the First Industrial Revolution, was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States, in the period from about.
Southwest, region, southwestern United States, historically denoting several geographic areas in turn and changing over the years as the nation expanded. After the War of , the Southwest generally meant Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana; after Texas was annexed, it, too, was included. In the. The labor movement in the United States grew out of the need to protect the common interest of workers. For those in the industrial sector, organized labor. The experiences during the War influenced British society, particularly women. During the war, many women had been employed in the factories, giving them a wage and therefore a certain degree of independence. Women over 30 had been given the vote in , and by this had been extended to all women over the age of (The British manufacturing industry, may it be said in parenthesis, has also found itself unable to meet the demands of the hard-headed British consumers who have increasingly looked to .